The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
Original Clinical Science|Articles in Press

Prophylactic Epinephrine Attenuates Severe Bleeding in Lung Transplantation Patients Undergoing Transbronchial Lung Biopsy – Results of the PROPHET Randomized Trial



      Severe hemorrhage is an uncommon yet potentially life-threatening complication of transbronchial lung biopsy. Lung transplantation recipients undergo multiple bronchoscopies with biopsy and are considered to be at an increased risk for bleeding from transbronchial biopsy, independent of traditional risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endobronchial administration of prophylactic topical epinephrine in attenuating transbronchial biopsy-related hemorrhage in lung transplant recipients.


      The Prophylactic Epinephrine for the Prevention of Transbronchial Lung Biopsy-related Bleeding in Lung Transplant Recipients (PROPHET) study was a two-center, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Participants undergoing transbronchial lung biopsy were randomized to receive 1:10,000-diluted topical epinephrine vs. saline placebo administered prophylactically into the target segmental airway. Bleeding was graded based on a clinical severity scale. The primary efficacy outcome was incidence of severe or very severe hemorrhage. The primary safety outcome was a composite of 3-hour all-cause mortality and an acute cardiovascular event.


      A total of 66 lung transplantation recipients underwent 100 bronchoscopies during the study period. The primary outcome of severe or very severe hemorrhage occurred in 4 cases (8%) in the prophylactic epinephrine group and in 13 cases (24%) in the control group (P=0.04). The composite primary safety outcome did not occur in any of the study groups.


      In lung transplantation recipients undergoing transbronchial lung biopsy, prophylactic administration of 1:10,000-diluted topical epinephrine into the target segmental airway prior to biopsy attenuates the incidence of significant endobronchial hemorrhage without conveying a significant cardiovascular risk. ( identifier: NCT03126968).

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