The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
Brief Communication|Articles in Press

Assessment of caregiver burden prior to implantation of left ventricular assist device: A national survey

Published:February 28, 2023DOI:


      Guidelines recommend incorporation of caregiver burden assessment and list significant caregiver burden as a relative contraindication when considering left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation.


      To assess national practices regarding caregiver burden assessment, in 2019 we administered a 47-item survey to LVAD clinicians using 4 convenience samples.


      Responses were obtained from 191 registered nurses, 109 advance practice providers, 71 physicians, 59 social workers, and 40 others representing 132 LVAD programs; 125 of 173 total United States programs were included in the final analysis. While most programs (83.2%) assessed caregiver burden, assessment was most frequently conducted informally during social work evaluation (83.2%), with only 8.8% incorporating validated measures of caregiver burden. Larger programs were more likely to use a validated assessment measure (OR 6.68 [1.33-33.52]).


      Future research should focus on how programs can standardize caregiver burden assessment and how the level of burden may impact patient and caregiver outcomes.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Mcllvennan CK
        • Matlock DD
        • Thompson JS
        • et al.
        Caregivers of patients considering a destination therapy left ventricular assist device and a shared decision-making intervention: the DECIDE-LVAD trial.
        JACC Heart Failure. 2018; 6: 904-913
        • Giancarlo C
        • Cerratti F
        • Della Pelle C
        • Simonetti V
        The experience of family caregivers of patients with a left ventricular assist device: an integrative review.
        Prog Transplant. 2016; 26: 135-148
        • Baker K
        • Flattery M
        • Salver J
        • Haugh KH
        • Maltby M.
        Caregiving for patients requiring left ventricular assist device support.
        Heart and Lung. 2010; 39: 196-200
        • Magid M
        • Jones J
        • Allen LA
        • et al.
        The perceptions of important elements of caregiving for a left ventricular assist device patient: a qualitative meta-synthesis.
        J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2016; 31: 15-25
        • Kitko L
        • Mcllvennan CK
        • Bidwell JT
        • et al.
        Family caregiving for individuals with heart failure: a scientific statement from the american heart association, american heart association council on cardiovascular and stroke nursing council on quality of care and outcomes research; council on clinical cardiology; and council on lifestyle and cardiometabolic heart.
        Circulation. 2020; 141: e864-e878
        • Gustafsson F
        • Rogers JG.
        Left ventricular assist device therapy in advanced heart failure: patient selection and outcomes.
        Eur J Heart Fail. 2016; 19: 595-602
        • Feldman D
        • Pamboukian SV
        • Teuteberg JJ.
        The 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines for mechanical circulatory support: executive summary.
        J Heart Lung Transplant. 2013; 32: 1053-2498
        • Masafumi Kuzuya
        • Enoki H
        • Hasegawa J
        • et al.
        Impact of caregiver burden on adverse health outcomes in community-dwelling dependent older care recipients.
        Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011; 19: L382-L391
        • Hooley PJD
        • Butler G
        • Owlett JG.
        The relationship of quality of life, depression, and caregiver burden in outpatients with congestive heart failure.
        Congest Heart Fail. 2005; 11: 303-310
        • Robinson BC.
        Validation of a caregiver strain index.
        J Gerontol. 1983; 38: 344-348