The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
Original Clinical Science|Articles in Press

The intersection of race and ethnicity, gender, and primary diagnosis on lung transplantation outcomes


      Reducing racial disparities in lung transplant outcomes is a current priority of providers, policymakers, and lung transplant centers. It is unknown how the combined effect of race and ethnicity, gender, and diagnosis group is associated with differences in 1-year mortality and 5-year survival.


      This is a longitudinal cohort study using Standard Transplant Analysis Research files from the United Network for organ sharing. A total of 25,444 patients undergoing first time lung transplantation between 2006 and 2019 in the United States. The primary exposures were lung transplant recipient race and ethnicity, gender, and primary diagnosis group at listing. Multivariable regression models and cox-proportional hazards models were used to determine adjusted 1-year mortality and 5-year survival.


      Overall, 25,444 lung transplant patients were included in the cohort including 15,160 (59.6%) men, 21,345 (83.9%) White, 2,318 (9.1%), Black and Hispanic/Latino (7.0%). Overall, men had a significant higher 1-year mortality than women (11.87%; 95% CI 11.07-12.67 vs 12.82%; 95% CI 12.20%-13.44%). Black women had the highest mortality of all race and gender combinations (14.51%; 95% CI 12.15%-16.87%). Black patients with pulmonary vascular disease had the highest 1-year mortality (19.77%; 95% CI 12.46%-27.08%) while Hispanic/Latino patients with obstructive lung disease had the lowest (7.42%; 95% CI 2.8%-12.05%). 5-year adjusted survival was highest among Hispanic/Latino patients (62.32%) compared to Black (57.59%) and White patients (57.82%).


      There are significant differences in 1-year and 5-year mortality between and within racial and ethnic groups depending on gender and primary diagnosis. This demonstrates the impact of social and clinical factors on lung transplant outcomes.


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