Xenogeneic cross-circulation (XC) is an experimental method for ex vivo organ support and recovery that could expand the pool of donor lungs suitable for transplantation. The objective of this study was to establish and validate a standardized, reproducible, and broadly applicable technique for performing xenogeneic XC to support and recover injured human donor lungs ex vivo.
Human donor lungs (n = 9) declined for transplantation were procured, cannulated, and subjected to 24 hours of xenogeneic XC with anesthetized xeno-support swine (Yorkshire/Landrace) treated with standard immunosuppression (methylprednisolone, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus) and complement-depleting cobra venom factor. Standard lung-protective perfusion and ventilation strategies, including periodic lung recruitment maneuvers, were used throughout xenogeneic XC. Every 6 hours, ex vivo donor lung function (gas exchange, compliance, airway pressures, pulmonary vascular dynamics, lung weight) was evaluated. At the experimental endpoint, comprehensive assessments of the lungs were performed by bronchoscopy, histology, and electron microscopy. Student's t-test and 1-way analysis of variance with Dunnett's post-hoc test was performed, and p < 0.05 was considered significant.
After 24 hours of xenogeneic XC, gas exchange (PaO2/FiO2) increased by 158% (endpoint: 364 ± 142 mm Hg; p = 0.06), and dynamic compliance increased by 127% (endpoint: 46 ± 20 ml/cmH2O; p = 0.04). Airway pressures, pulmonary vascular pressures, and lung weight remained stable (p > 0.05) and within normal ranges. Over 24 hours of xenogeneic XC, gross and microscopic lung architecture were preserved: airway bronchoscopy and parenchymal histomorphology appeared normal, with intact blood–gas barrier.
Xenogeneic cross-circulation is a robust method for ex vivo support, evaluation, and improvement of injured human donor lungs declined for transplantation.
Abbreviations:CVF (cobra venom factor), EVLP (ex vivo lung perfusion), IJV (internal jugular vein), PA (pulmonary artery), PV (pulmonary vein), TPG (transpulmonary pressure gradient), XC (cross-circulation)
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Published online: November 14, 2022
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