The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
Research Article| Volume 42, ISSUE 2, P183-195, February 2023

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L-alanyl-L-glutamine modified perfusate improves human lung cell functions and extend porcine ex vivo lung perfusion

Published:November 03, 2022DOI:


      The clinical application of normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has increased donor lung utilization for transplantation through functional assessment. To develop it as a platform for donor lung repair, reconditioning and regeneration, the perfusate should be modified to support the lung during extended EVLP.


      Human lung epithelial cells and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells were cultured, and the effects of Steen solution (commonly used EVLP perfusate) on basic cellular function were tested. Steen solution was modified based on screening tests in cell culture, and further tested with an EVLP cell culture model, on apoptosis, GSH, HSP70, and IL-8 expression. Finally, a modified formula was tested on porcine EVLP. Physiological parameters of lung function, histology of lung tissue, and amino acid concentrations in EVLP perfusate were measured.


      Steen solution reduced cell confluence, induced apoptosis, and inhibited cell migration, compared to regular cell culture media. Adding L-alanyl-L-glutamine to Steen solution improved cell migration and decreased apoptosis. It also reduced cold preservation and warm perfusion-induced apoptosis, enhanced GSH and HSP70 production, and inhibited IL-8 expression on an EVLP cell culture model. L-alanyl-L-glutamine modified Steen solution supported porcine lungs on EVLP with significantly improved lung function, well-preserved histological structure, and significantly higher levels of multiple amino acids in EVLP perfusate.


      Adding L-alanyl-L-glutamine to perfusate may provide additional energy support, antioxidant, and cytoprotective effects to lung tissue. The pipeline developed herein, with cell culture, cell EVLP, and porcine EVLP models, can be used to further optimize perfusates to improve EVLP outcomes.


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