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The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

Prognostic role of pulmonary hemodynamics before transcatheter aortic valve replacement among patients with severe aortic stenosis

Published:October 08, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2022.10.001

      Background

      Pulmonary hypertension (PH) frequently co-exists in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). In this study, we sought to identify the implications of invasive pulmonary hemodynamics on major adverse cardiac events (MACE), biventricular function and NYHA functional class after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

      Methods

      Invasive hemodynamics via right heart catheterization (RHC) were performed pre-TAVR. Patients were stratified per mean PA pressure (mPAP), diastolic pulmonary gradient (DPG) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and followed at 1-month and 1-year intervals up to 6 years. MACE outcomes included cardiovascular death and heart failure hospitalizations post-TAVR.

      Results

      Among 215 patients, Kaplan-Meir estimates demonstrated an increased 1-year risk of MACE from 8% among those without pre-TAVR PH to 27% among patients with pre-existing PH. Specifically, the MACE risk was 32% among PH patients with PVR ≥ 3WU (p = .04) and 53% among PH patients with DPG ≥ 7 mm Hg (p < .01). On univariate Cox regression, RV stroke work index (RVSWI) (HR,1.02; p = .02), and pulmonary hemodynamic index (PHI) (HR,1.27; p = .047) were identified as additional predictors of MACE post-TAVR. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, SvO2 (HR, 0.95; p = .01) and PVR (HR, 1.2; p = .04) were demonstrated as predictive of MACE post-TAVR. A significant improvement in LVEF (2-Factor ANOVA, p < .01) and RV fractional area change (RVFAC%) (p < .01) was noted as assessed at baseline, 1-month and 1-year follow up post-TAVR. There was a significant interaction between pre-TAVR PH status and time post procedure with respect to NYHA functional class (p = .03), that is, the manner and degree of change in NYHA class over time depended on pre-TAVR PH status.

      Conclusions

      Defining invasive pulmonary hemodynamics, such as mPAP, PVR, and DPG among patients with severe AS undergoing TAVR has significant prognostic implications. Routine risk stratification by utilizing invasive hemodynamics can better identify patients who will have functional improvement and improved outcomes post-TAVR.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      AS (aortic stenosis), PH (pulmonary hypertension), TAVR (transcatheter aortic valve replacement), RHC (right-heart catheterization), MACE (major adverse cardiac event), PVR (pulmonary vascular resistance), DPG (diastolic pulmonary gradient), NYHA (New York Heart Association)
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