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The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.

Association between postoperative hemodynamic metrics of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction and clinical outcomes after left ventricular assist device implantation

      Background

      While preoperative hemodynamic risk factors associated with early right heart failure (RHF) following left ventricular assist device (LVAD) surgery are well-established, the relationship between postoperative hemodynamic status and subsequent outcomes remains poorly defined.

      Methods

      We analyzed adult CF-LVAD patients from the STS-INTERMACS registry surviving at least 3 months without evidence of early RHF and with hemodynamic data available at 3 months after LVAD implant. The association between metrics of RV afterload and function and the subsequent risk of death, right heart failure (RHF), gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), or stroke were assessed using multivariable Cox proportional hazards modeling.

      Results

      Among 1,050 patients with available 3-month hemodynamics, pulmonary hypertension was common, with 585 (55.7%) having mPAP ≥ 20 mm Hg and 164 (15.6%) having PVR ≥ 3 WU. Pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi, HR 0.62 per log-increase for values < 3, 95% CI 0.43-0.89) and PVR (HR 1.19 per 1 WU-increase for values > 1.5 WU, 95% CI 1.03-1.38) were independently associated with the composite of death or RHF. Postoperative RAP (HR 1.18 per 5 mm Hg increase, 95% CI 1.04-1.33), RAP:PCWP (HR 1.46 per log-increase, 95% CI 1.12-1.91), and PAPi (HR 0.76 per log-increase, 95% CI 0.61-0.95) were each associated with GIB risk. Postoperative hemodynamics was not associated with stroke risk.

      Conclusions

      Hemodynamic metrics of postoperative RV dysfunction and elevated RV afterload are independently associated with RHF, mortality and GIB. Whether strategies targeting postoperative optimization of RV function and afterload can reduce the burden of these adverse events requires prospective study.

      KEYWORDS

      Abbreviations:

      GIB (gastrointestinal bleed), HR (hazard ratio), LVAD (left ventricular assist device), PAPi (pulmonary artery pulsatility index), RHF (right heart failure)
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