The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation.
Current controversy| Volume 24, ISSUE 5, P511-516, May 2005

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“Stealth Immune Tolerance” in Stem Cell Transplantation: Potential for “Universal Donors” in Myocardial Regenerative Therapy

  • Ray C.J. Chiu
    Reprint requests: Ray C. J. Chiu, MD, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Montreal General Hospital-McGill University Health Centre, Suite C9-169, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4, Canada. Telephone: 514-934-1934 (ext. 42839). Fax: 514-934-8289.
    Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
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      In the emerging field of stem cell transplantation for regenerative cell therapy, it is generally taken for granted that such donor stem cells will behave like any other differentiated cells immunologically when transplanted into histocompatibility-mismatched recipients.
      • Burnet F.M.
      Thus, the current preferred approach of using autologous stem or progenitor cells for myocardial regeneration, both experimentally and clinically, aims to avoid immune rejection of donor cells, which can be expected after allogeneic or xenogeneic transplantation. The primary rationale in favoring research on “therapeutic cloning” is to avoid immune rejection after the transplantation of cells derived from embryonic stem cells. Thus, in any experimental studies involving transplantation of such cells across histocompatibility barriers, the investigators automatically assume that either immunosuppression will be required or the use of immunodeficient recipients (such as SCID or nude mouse) will be mandatory.
      • Toma C.
      • Pittenger M.F.
      • Cahill K.S.
      • Byrne B.J.
      • Kessler P.D.
      Human mesenchymal stem cells differentiate to a cardiomyocyte phenotype in the adult murine heart.
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